Actual suburbs of Constantinople

We left Stamboul with some American pals who had additionally been requested and, at occasions skirting the quays, at occasions taking the highway behind the previous palaces, we adopted the winding contour of the Bosporus. All of the villages right here represent the true suburbs of Constantinople and observe one another virtually uninterruptedly practically to the shores of the Black Sea. One of many first issues that attracted our consideration quickly after we had left the town correct had been the buildings of the American Naval Base the place are saved all of the shops for the US warships.

The principal nations maintain such shops at current in Constantinople, the harbor getting used as a base for his or her warships engaged within the worldwide management of the straits. America maintains just a few small craft within the Close to East; due to this fact, its naval base is far smaller than these of the opposite nations however it’s however fairly an intensive group istanbul daily tours the place are saved canned merchandise of all form, recent meals, in addition to deck and engine room provides. Just a few squares from the American Naval Base is the Imperial Palace of Dolma Baghtshe, the official residence of the Sultan.

It’s an elaborate and huge palace in stone and marble, inside a ravishing backyard surrounded with excessive partitions and wrought iron gates. I keep in mind having entered it through the reign of the late Sultan. I used to be struck by the large measurement of its halls and rooms, by the posh of its priceless carpets, rugs and hangings, and by its gallery of images which incorporates an important assortment of work of the well-known Russian artist, Aivazowsky.

It had been collected by Sultan Abdul Aziz and is now greedily coveted by many European museums, who will, nonetheless, need to be happy simply to covet it as Turkey doesn’t promote its nationwide artwork possessions. Passing earlier than the Imperial Palace I couldn’t assist evaluating mentally its current look to the best way it seemed when

Lonely Turkish sentry

I had beforehand visited it. At the moment the place was energetic, the big gates had been broad opened, and the gardens had been crowded with army aides and chamberlains busily going and coming. Now the gates had been closed, a lonely Turkish sentry was pacing up and down, guarding the empty palace, and thru the wrought iron bars I might get solely glimpses of its forsaken gardens.

My American pals requested me why the palace was now so tightly closed and simply understood the explanation once I known as their consideration to the truth that a lot of the largest overseas warships needed to be anchored within the Bosporus proper in entrance of the Palace because the internal harbor of Constantinople is just too congested with commerce to make it sensible for battleships to remain there.

Crimson Crescent

“You may simply notice that below these circumstances there’s little or no social life. Apart from, the work undertaken is just too strenuous, the folks listed below are an excessive amount of occupied with their duties and actually in earnest about conducting them in addition to they will to take pleasure in social life. Moreover there are only a few representatives of the truthful intercourse in Angora, and social life with out women just isn’t potential. Many of the ladies listed below are villagers or else nurses of the Crimson Crescent, Turkish reduction employees and women in any other case occupied in aiding their husbands, fathers or brothers within the patriotic process they’ve undertaken.

There aren’t any ladies of leisure, no hostess who has sufficient time to entertain. It may be honestly stated that each Turkish girl now in Angora is slightly Joan of Arc. And the quarters being so insufficient a lot of the ladies stay collectively and sleep collectively simply as their males are obliged to stay and sleep collectively. Everybody right here works grimly with a particular function and faces the realities confronting the cyclopean work of recreating a Nation.

“The shortage of social intercourse doesn’t nevertheless detract from the curiosity of the place. The sight of the streets alone is most attention-grabbing and edifying. Everyone seems to be so busy and there are such a lot of folks right here that it’s hardly potential to stroll leisurely within the streets in the course of the rush hours of the day. One is taken up and carried by the gang. And the gang is essentially the most diversified and picturesque that one can see in anyplace, not even barring the proverbial bridge in Constantinople. You see, volunteers of all types have rushed right here not solely from Anatolia, however from each Turkish nation, each Turkish village of the world and even from essentially the most diversified Muslim international locations of Asia and Africa. It’s a actual Babel, however of costumes not of languages: each one speaks Turkish.

Azerbeidjanian and Caucasian Turks

Turkish Anatolian peasants, with dishevelled trousers, broad blue belts and skinny turbans over their fez, fraternize with Tartars and Kirghiz of Turkestan. Azerbeidjanian and Caucasian Turks, with tightfitting black coats and massive black astrakan kolpaks on their heads   runaways from Bolshevik Russia   are discussing the rules of actual democracy as utilized to Nationalist Turkey and evaluating them with the socalled democracy of Soviet lands. Muslim Chinamen and Hindoos are speaking over the way forward for Turkey and Islam. All of the nations of Asia intermingle right here and most of them have official missions in Angora: Embassies from Afghanistan, Beluchistan, Bokhara, Khiva and from the completely different new Republics of Turkestan, duly accredited representatives from Persia and Azerbeidjan.

The quota from Africa can also be very massive and whereas there aren’t any diplomatic missions from African international locations for the easy purpose that each one African international locations are colonies 1 many are the Fellahs from Egypt, the Algerians and Moroccans and even the Muslim negroes of North Africa who might be seen within the streets.


Pushing his approach by way of the crowds

Sherwood Anderson (1876-1940)

Sherwood Anderson was born at Clyde, Ohio, in 1876. Although he had written tales earlier than, it was not till 1916 that he printed his first e book, Windy McPherson`s Son. Anderson`s quick tales significantly these within the quantity Winesburg, Ohio are about as totally different from the suavely intelligent merchandise of Harte and O. Henry as something might be. They’re involved first and final with human beings: plot and approach briefly, the framework are virtually solely disregarded in an effort to current what seems to the author as the reality.

Sophistication is reprinted from Winesburg, Ohio. Copyright by Jonathan Cape, by whose permission it’s right here used.


It was early night of a day within the late fall, and the Winesburg County Honest had introduced crowds of nation folks into city. The day had been clear and the evening got here on heat and nice. On the Trunion Pike, the place the street after it left city stretched away between berry fields now coated with dry brown leaves, the mud from passing wagons arose in clouds. Kids, curled into little balls, slept on the straw scattered on wagon beds. Their hair was stuffed with mud and their fingers black and sticky. The mud rolled away over the fields and the departing solar set it ablaze with colours.

In the principle road of Winesburg crowds crammed the shops and the sidewalks. Evening got here on, horses whinnied, the clerks within the shops ran madly about, youngsters turned misplaced and cried lustily, an American city labored terribly on the job of amusing itself.

Pushing his approach through the crowds in Most important Avenue, younger George Willard hid himself within the stairway resulting in Physician Reefy`s workplace and regarded on the folks. With feverish eyes he watched the faces drifting previous beneath the shop lights. Ideas saved coming into his head and he didn’t wish to assume. He stamped impatiently on the picket steps and regarded sharply about. “Properly, is she going to stick with him all day? Have I carried out all this ready for nothing?” he muttered.

George Willard, the Ohio village boy, was quick rising into manhood and new ideas had been coming into his thoughts. All that day, amid the jam of individuals on the Honest, he had gone about feeling lonely. He was about to go away Winesburg to go away to some metropolis the place he hoped to get work on a metropolis newspaper and he felt grown up.

The temper that had taken possession of him was a factor identified to males and unknown to boys. He felt previous and slightly drained. Reminiscences awoke in him. To his thoughts his new sense of maturity set him aside, product of him a half-tragic determine. He needed somebody to know the sensation that had taken possession of him after his mom`s dying.

The announcement that an unknown German Prince

Earlier to his choice by the Regency which was appointed on Prince Alexander’s abdication, and of which M. Stambouloff was the main member, there have been in all probability not a rating of individuals in all Bulgaria who had ever heard the title of her future sovereign.

Little question, an analogous comment would have held good of his predecessor on the time of his accession. However then Alexander got here to Bulgaria as her sovereign on the occasion and with the approval of the Czar, the Liberator of Bulgaria ; whereas Ferdinand, on his accession, was not befriended by any nice European Energy, and was notoriously a persona ingrata to the one Energy from whom Bulgaria had most both to hope or concern. Because the youthful son of the pinnacle of the non-regnant department of the Saxe-Coburgs, his father being an excellent Austrian nobleman, and his mom a daughter of the ex-King of the French, he had no different recognized declare to distinction than that of belonging to an illustrious household, linked by ties of consanguinity with nearly all of the royal homes of Europe, and occupying a excessive place in Austria, the place their estates have been located.

On the Continent, princes of royal lineage have little likelihood of distinguishing themselves personally in any approach, aside from army service; and Prince Ferdinand was nonetheless a mere youngster on the date of the final European conflict.

It was, due to this fact, no fault of his, if the announcement that an unknown German Prince had been chosen to be their future sovereign excited little enthusiasm amidst the folks over whom he was known as to reign. I query, nevertheless, whether or not a sovereign of far larger private reputation would have been welcomed with any diploma of enthusiasm.

In so far as the Bulgarians troubled themselves concerning the selection of their ruler, their one want was for the restoration of the Prince who had led their armies to victory, and who, as they held, had been sacrificed on account of his loyalty to Bulgaria. The late Prince’s restoration, nevertheless, was out of the query, and for Bulgaria, located as she then was, the election of Prince Ferdinand was, if I could use a typical phrase, Hobson’s selection. Hobson, whoever that legendary personage could have been, will not be recorded to have entertained any particular regard for the article of his enforced choice.


Majesty turns into when stripped

Prince Ferdinand by no means has acquired, and possibly by no means will purchase, the non-public maintain on the affections of his topics which was obtained by Prince Alexander. However he has succeeded in inspiring them with the conviction that he has their welfare at coronary heart, and that he’s the champion of their nationwide independence.

I’m not positive additionally whether or not his willpower to encompass himself with the paraphernalia of royalty and to maintain up all of the etiquette and state of an everyday Courtroom will not be attributable to coverage as a lot as to private inclinatioa There’s a great deal of fact within the previous riddle about what Majesty turns into when stripped of its externals; human nature is a mass of contradictions in every single place; and I’m inclined to assume that the Bulgarians exactly as a result of their very own habits, tastes, and concepts are of the peasant order have a better respect for the King who’s a King, with a Courtroom which is a Courtroom, than they’d have for a Prince who was content material to be handled merely and solely because the chief Justice of the Peace of a peasant commonwealth.

Sovereign of an impartial State

Furthermore, the chapter of accidents has precipitated the Prince’s willpower to maintain up the outward state and dignity of royalty to imagine the character of a nationwide protest If he had been acknowledged on the outset by the European Powers and handled by them because the chosen sovereign of an impartial State, his punctilious insistence on the formalities of a royal Courtroom being noticed at Sofia may need been ascribed to mere private vainness. However, from the graduation of his reign down to the current day, he has been tabooed, handled with scant courtesy, and, so to talk, unnoticed within the chilly by his fellow- sovereigns.

Although he has now reigned for seven years because the chosen sovereign of Bulgaria, the selection of the nation has been studiously and persistently ignored by the European Powers. No one in every of these Powers, nonetheless pleasant disposed, has ever but formally acknowledged the existence of the current Bulgarian monarchy. It isn’t accorded a spot amidst the monarchies whose file is recited within the Almanack de Gotha. Even Nice Britain and Turkey have by no means made up their minds to deal with the Prince with the ceremonial because of the authorized sovereign of an impartial State.

The good majority of the diplomatic physique at Sofia by no means go to Courtroom or maintain any private communication with the sovereign. The few members of the physique who break via the rule of absolute non-recognition achieve this moderately on the bottom of the Prince’s private kinship to the dynasties they signify, than to the actual fact of his being the sovereign of the State to which they’re accredited.

Whether or not the coverage of non-recognition is smart or unwise, it has had the great results of inflicting the Bulgarians to treat the decision of Prince Ferdinand to be handled in all respects as a legit sovereign within the mild of a protest in opposition to the slight inflicted by his non-recognition, not a lot on himself as on the nation over which he guidelines.



Foreign policy state

The foreign policy of a state whose grandeur is founded upon conquest, must characteristically be that erf conquest. It is of course in furtherance of this policy that the great and novel plan of “military colonization” has been devised. Eventually this, it appears, is to place at the dis postal of government, three millions of males,   trained from the earliest age to military exercises, and to be held constantly in readiness to rein force the embodied army. Whether this number is to be the maximum, will of course depend upon circumstances.

Seventy thousand is the number stated to be now available from this source.

The settlements granted to the Roman Legions were chiefly for defense, and for services pen formed. These appear to concern the future more than the past; and are obviously calculated rather to assail than protect The consequence) if not the intention, is plainly the foundation of an immense military caste, whose confirmed habits and separate interests must no less dispose and qualify them to rivet the chains of their own countrymen, than to impose an equally galling bondage on every surrounding people.

What political institution, democratic or otherwise, can be so inimical to the safety of other states, as the uncalled-for preparation of such permanent and overwhelming means of aggression?

The number of serfs stated to belong to the crown, is fourteen millions; with a still greater proportion of land. The individual members of the Imperial family also possess a considerable number the remainder, with a small exception, being the property of noble or private persons,   all being equally subject to unlimited and uncontrolled military conscription. It cannot therefore be alleged that other governments have their remedy by adopting a like system, because to no other government are there means of a similar amount and character available.

Population is the proportion

About one eleventh of the population is the proportion, it is believed, that are free.

Whether these colonies may or may not produce to the full extent what appears to have been contemplated; is, as yet, uncertain. But the stupendous project completely discloses the anima of the government.

Their succession to the throne of  the Russia has; not broken, and even the occupants cut off, by conspiracies, which have usually effected their purpose, though, the aid of such portions of the army as: may have, been at hand.:. But these tragically eveatahaye, in no instance wrought any essential change on the gap and external views of the governments; such are amongst the perils which must ever be the penalty of an injudiciously exerted despotism.


Forming my opinions

It has been my object, in forming my opinions as to the present condition of Bulgaria, to keep an open mind. I have tried to explain the general causes which have brought about the peculiar social and economical conditions of Bulgaria. I have endeavoured to do justice to the peculiar qualities of race and character which are partly the cause, partly the effect, of her present system of government, and her existing social organization. I have also tried to indicate the defects inseparable from the state of things under which alone a peasant community is a possibility.

Physical and intellectual

Anybody acquainted with peasant life, as it exists in naked reality not in fiction, can fill in for himself the various failings, social, physical, and intellectual, to which I have had cause to allude frequently. But I have made no attempt to strike a balance between the advantages and disadvantages of such a social fabric as the one I have sought to describe. In Bulgaria, as elsewhere, my rule has been to take things very much as I find them, to describe these things as they are in fact, not as they ought to be in theory ; and to leave it to others to decide whether the things so described are in harmony with the abstract principles which govern, or are supposed to govern, the condition of humanity.

Those who wish to find arguments or illustration, whether for or against the “ three acres and a cow ” school of political economy, may probably find both in what I have written. For my part, I have no theory to advocate one way or the other. I shall be content if I succeed in calling attention to a very exceptional social organization, which in all human likelihood must be transitory; and I know of no better term under which to describe this organization than the title I have chosen for this book, that of “ The Peasant State.”

For Englishmen in particular, quite apart from their general interest in the Eastern Question, this aspect of Bulgaria possesses a special importance. Public attention in England has in our days been greatly attracted to the advantages of a peasant proprietary. The merits or demerits of such a system lie for the present beyond the range of party politics.

Liberals and Conservatives are alike agreed to accept, as an axiom of political economy, the dictum that, in a well-regulated state, the mass of the community ought by rights to have a personal, individual stake in the land. Our public men seem to be coming round to the belief that the ideal State would be one best described by the saying attributed to Henry IV. of France, that he hoped to see the day when every French peasant would have a fowl in his pot We have endeavoured, by legislation, to create a class of small peasant land-owners in Ireland; we are contemplating the possibility of creating such a class in England. It needs no great political foresight to prophesy that “the three acres and a cow” theory, originated by Mr. Chamberlain, will soon become the recognized stock-in-trade of every political party which stands in need of the agricultural vote. Again, an important and increasing section of the Liberal party at home has taken up the view that large accumulations of private fortune are an evil to be discouraged, if not prevented, by legislation ; and that, in the new era which it is hoped to inaugurate, capital and pauperism will be alike comparatively unknown quantities.

I am not an ardent political economist I am not, perhaps, much of a believer in any scheme for the reorganization of society on a new and a better basis. But my personal views as to the progress of humanity are of no great interest to myself, and of none at all to the world at large. I shall not, therefore, obtrude any views I may hold on this subject in these pages. My endeavour is confined to a wish to show that Bulgaria, as at present constituted, approaches as closely as is consistent with the imperfection of all human institutions to the ideal State of our latter- day social reformers, in which there are to be no poor and no rich, in which every citizen is to have a share, and to a considerable extent an equal share, in the land of the commonwealth, in which there are to be no privileged classes and no social distinctions, and in which the people, who in the case of Bulgaria are the peasants, are to govern themselves by themselves and for themselves.

Egypt dwelt two sons

In Egypt dwelt two sons of a nobleman, one of whom acquired learning, and the other gained wealth. The former became the most learned man of his time, and the other prince of Egypt. Afterwards the rich man looked with contempt on his learned brother, and said, “I have arrived at monarchy, and you have continued in the sartte state of poverty.” He replied, “ 0 brother, it behooved me to be the more thankful to the divine Creator, since I have found the inheritance of the prophets, that is, wisdom ; and you have got the portion of Pharaoh and Hainan, or the kingdom of Egypt. I am the ant, which men tread under their feet, and not the wasp, of whose sting they complain. How shall I express my grateful sense of such blessing, that I am not possessed of the means of oppressing mankind? ”

Heard of Durwesh

I heard of a Durwesh, who was suffering great distress from poverty, and sewing patch upon patch, but who comforted himself with the following verse : ‘ I am contented with stale bread and a coarse woolen frock, since, it is better to bear the weight of one’s own necessities, than to suffer the load o obligation from mankind.’ Somebody said to him “Why do you sit quiet, whilst such one in the city has a liberal mind and possesses universal benevolence, being ever willing to assist the pious and always ready to comfort every heart. If h were apprised of your condition, he would consider it an obligation to satisfy your wants.” He replied, “ Be silent, for it is better to die of want than to expose our necessities to any one : for they have said, that to sew patch upon patch and be patient, is preferable to writing a petition to a great man for clothing.” Of a truth, it is equal to the torments of hell, to enter into paradise by the help of one’s neighbor.

Kings of Persia

One of the kings of Persia sent a skilful physician to Mustufa (upon whom be peace!). He had been some years in Arbia without any one having come to make trial of his skill, neither had they applied to him for any medicine. One day he came to the prince of prophets, and complained, saying, “They sent me to dispense medicines to your companions, but to this day no one hath taken notice of me, that I might have an opportunity of performing the service to which I had been appointed.” Mohammed replied, “It is a rule with these people never to eat until they are hard pressed by hunger, and to leave off eating whilst they have a good appetite.” The physician said, “This is the way to enjoy health.” He then made his obeisance and departed. The physician begins to speak when evil would result from his silence; either when there is eating to excess, or when death might ensue from too much abstinence. Then doubtless his speech is wisdom, and such a meal will be productive of health.

In introducing this book, there are good reasons why one should start with a reassurance to the reader. In our own time, remarkable advances have been made in the improvement of archaeological method and practice: and during the past decade, a dozen handbooks have been produced, explaining the principals involved, illustrating their effectiveness and advocating their adoption. One would think there is hardly room for another: and indeed, this is not intended to be one.

It will deal with a particular aspect of archaeology. a particular kind of archaeological excavation, as practiced in one very vitally important group of countries. Even so, it will not pretend to be a comprehensive survey of what has been done there or of the methods adopted. For it is based largely on the personal experience of a particular excavator. Its primary purpose is to share that experience and the knowledge derived from it, with others who may benefit from it, before the pattern of recollected inferences loses its precision.

When, in 1961, I gave up my appointment as director of the archaeological institute in Ankara, I had almost completed a third of a century of continuous residence in the Near East: and during that period, hardly a year passed when I was not engaged in the supervision of an archaeological excavation. Almost all these excavations took place within the limits of what the American historian, James Henry Breasted, first called the “Fertile Crescent55: and the use of that phrase introduces the necessity for an immediate definition of the geographical area which the book is intended to cover. In addition, here it at once becomes apparent that Breasted’s phrase will not serve our purpose.


Were not these the same contentions and disputes which had been the principal causes of the war ? Could it be imagined that the Spahis   who formed a large portion of the army, which was already on the boundary of the country   would consent to be excluded from what they deemed their inheritance: at a moment too, when every thing seemed favourable for its recovery ?

The Turks were again in possession of Moldavia and Wallachia, as well as of Widdin, and were also masters of Bulgaria. They were moreover inspired with peculiar confidence; from the circumstance that in the course of that very spring, the Holy Cities in Arabia had been freed from the Wechabites, and their keys brought to Constan tinople. Under this aspect of affairs, would the victorious armies of the Grand Signior hesitate to commence the war with the rebellious Servian Raja?

At that very time, also, was received the news of the battle of Lut/.en, which was regarded as a defeat of the Russians ; and all fear of them was entirely cast aside. Resides, the Turks did not consider that they had broken the treaty; since the Servians rejected the interpretation which the Porte had given to it.

Determined to maintain the privileges of Islamism undiminished within the boundaries of the Empire, the Turkish army advanced towards the; Servian frontiers, and recommenced the war.

Great European Conflict.   The Christian and the Islamite Principles represented in the Servians and the Turks.   Opinion of the French. Ambassador at Constantinople respecting the Conduct of England.   Solemn Religious Meetings and Warlike Proclamations of the Servians.   Anticipated Aid of Russia.   Monarchical Government of Kara George.   Changes in the Servian Constitution.   Difference betiveen the Present and Former Military Proceedings.   Character of the Heydnc Welilto.

First Collision of the Servians with the Turks.  ft [la deli s jealousy of Weliko.  Death of Weliko in the Defence of Negotin. Devastating Progress of the Turks on the Danube.   Junction of the Armies of the Grand Vizier and the Cupitan Pacha. Servian Prisoners conducted to Constantinople.   Continued Advance of the Turks.   Disastrous State of Servia.   Defection and. Flight of Kara George.  The Turks take Possession of Smederewo and Belgrade without Resistance.

At the time when all the powers of civilised Europe were prepared to settle the most momentous question that had arisen for centuries, a conflict arose on the very boundaries of this continent, amongst those whom we may, without wronging them, truly style barbarians: a conflict which, though it cannot be compared with that which agitated Europe, as regards its influence on the world in general, was yet of great importance in determining the superiority of the Christian or of the Islam sway.

Nevertheless, some connexion miglit be observed between the two contests. The French Ambassador  who, unfortunately, was too reserved respecting his negotiations reported only that the Porte, notwithstanding the disaster which had befallen the French, had not yielded to the influence of the combined Powers ; but that, on the contrary, he had found greater facility in the prosecution of his diplomatic duties.

Popular opinion went much farther. The Turks who advanced into Servia declared, in plain terms, that they expected the assistance of France; that it„was the wish of the Grand.. Signior to plant a military force on the frontiers of Servia, for the purpose of threatening Austria, and thus preventing v. her from joining the coalition.

This would explain the fact that, whilst on former occasions a Pacha of Bosnia had disdained to > fight against the Servians, the Grand Vizier Churs  >          chid in person now led the army against them.

Stamboul has provided them

She has a soul of her own, very much alive and very compassionate a soul which appeals to foreigners and to the Turks alike perhaps because of the feeling of love and compassion which emanates from her and wins for her the hearts of Turks and foreigners. She loves her children: more than thirty thousand families have in the last ten years seen their houses destroyed by fire but somehow or other not one member of those thirty thousand families has remained without shelter.

Stamboul has provided them with a roof and there they are, all her children, somewhat crowded it is true, but all living within her hospitable walls. She loves the foreigners and receives them with the greatest hospitality, she adopts those who can understand her and treats them even better than her own children: she has named two of her streets after Pierre Loti and Claude Farrere, her great French friends, so that their names will remain forever alive within her walls. All who come to her fall in love with her, and my wife and myself fell immediately under her spell: she is so good, so sad, and so peaceful!

Sublime Porte

Our house is on one of her principal streets, a wide avenue which leads to the Sublime Porte and then on to the Mausoleum of Sultan Mahmoud. The avenue, like most of the principal streets of Stamboul, is bordered with old plane trees where pigeons, and nightingales, have made their home. From our windows we see the court of the Sublime Porte, a big tumbledown building where all the principal government departments are concentrated.

The gates of the Sublime Porte are night and day guarded by Turkish soldiers and policemen, clean-cut young Turks, tanned from the sun and the invigorating air of their birthplace in Anatolia. Every hour of the day or of the night two of them tramp before the gate opposite our house, in rain or in sunshine, in snow or in fog.

At the corner of the court there is a little mosque built especially for their use so that they can go five times a day to prayer. Five times a day the “muezzin” appears atop the slender minaret and in his soulful chant calls the soldiers and the neighborhood to prayer. And they all pray: when the sun rises and when it goes down, in the middle of the day, in the middle of the afternoon and in the middle of the night.